Lanyu,formerly named Hongtouyu (Red Head Island),is an isolated small island in the Pacific. One of the earliest records of Lanyu was written by Torii Ryuzo (1870～1953),a Japanese ethnologist,anthropologist and folklorist who explored the island in 1897. He called this island "Yami" in his report,and thus the indigenous people on this island were called the Yami Tribe accordingly. In 1947,the island was officially renamed Lanyu (Orchid Island) for its rich orchid produces. In 1967,the travel restrictions to mountain areas were lifted and Lanyu was open to the public. The locals named the island Ponso no Tau,meaning "island of the people",and called themselves the Taos,who are Taiwan's only marine tribe. Their isolated lifestyle helped preserve the tribal traditions and cultures. Tatala (plank boat),semi-basement housing and traditional ceremonies are the tribe's unique features as well as the nation's treasure. The island's ecological environment is also well preserved. Protected species,such as Scope Owls and Birdwing Butterflies,are found here. Visitors should demonstrate proper etiquette and respects to the culture,and only photograph the residents or semibasement houses when permitted.